Language Oriented Worldbuilding. Originally Annex B of the Book of Conworlds.
You can not select more than 25 topics Topics must start with a letter or number, can include dashes ('-') and can be up to 35 characters long.
 

416 lines
22 KiB

GNU Free Documentation License
Version 1.3, 3 November 2008 Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free
Software Foundation, Inc. <http://fsf.org/>
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
document, but changing it is not allowed.
0. PREAMBLE
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional
and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the
effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it,
either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves
for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
software.
We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software,
because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come
with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this
License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual
work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed
book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction
or reference.
1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under
the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free
license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated
herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member
of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license
if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under
copyright law.
A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated
into another language.
A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters)
and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject.
(Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section
may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial,
philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated,
as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document
is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition
of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document
may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any
Invariant Sections then there are none.
The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover
Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released
under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover
Text may be at most 25 words.
A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented
in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is
suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors
or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings)
some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text
formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for
input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format
whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage
subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is
not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is
not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without
markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly
available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed
for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG,
XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and
edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD
and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated
HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes
only.
The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License
requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have
any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent
appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the
text.
The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of the
Document to the public.
A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title
either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that
translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section
name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements",
or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this
definition.
The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states
that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are
considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards
disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers
may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
2. VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However,
you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you
may publicly display copies.
3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed
covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license
notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry,
clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front
cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly
and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover
must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent
and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying
with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of
the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying
in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly,
you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual
cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network
location from which the general network-using public has access to download
using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the
Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take
reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in
quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible
at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute
an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition
to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document
well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance
to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
4. MODIFICATIONS
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions
of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version
under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of
the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified
Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these
things in the Modified Version:
A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from
that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if
there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may
use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that
version gives permission.
B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible
for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with
at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version,
as the publisher.
D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
the other copyright notices.
F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this
License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice. H. Include an
unaltered copy of this License.
I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to
it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of
the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled
"History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and
publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing
the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations
given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be
placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work
that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the
original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve
the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and
tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given
therein.
L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered
part of the section titles.
M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included
in the Modified Version.
N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to
conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document,
you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant.
To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section
titles.
You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization
as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage
of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts
in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover
Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If
the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously
added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf
of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement
of any Modified Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License,
under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided
that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of
the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections
of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their
Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there
are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents,
make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section
if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined
work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the
various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise
combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled
"Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released
under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the
various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided
that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of
the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
regarding verbatim copying of that document.
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent
documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium,
is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is
not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what
the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate,
this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are
not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate,
the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document
within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document
is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
the whole aggregate.
8. TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations
of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections
with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders,
but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition
to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation
of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty
Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of
this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In
case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of
this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications",
or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1)
will typically require changing the actual title.
9. TERMINATION
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify,
sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your
rights under this License.
However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from
a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and
until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license,
and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation
by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.
Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently
if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means,
this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License
(for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior
to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses
of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License.
If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt
of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights
to use it.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar
in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new
problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or
any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms
and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that
has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of
this License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a
version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.
11. RELICENSING
"Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any World Wide
Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent
facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can
edit is an example of such a server. A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration"
(or "MMC") contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus
published on the MMC site.
"CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license
published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with
a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future
copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.
"Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part,
as part of another Document.
An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this License,
and if all works that were first published under this License somewhere other
than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or in part into the
MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated
prior to November 1, 2008.
The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site under
CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009, provided the
MMC is eligible for relicensing. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your
documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
just after the title page:
Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or
modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation
License".
If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace
the "with...Texts." line with this:
with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover
Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination
of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license,
such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.